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“Charts and maps” del National Maritime Museum

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[Carte universelle du commerce, c’est a dire carte hidrographique, ou sont exactement decrites, les costes des 4 parties du monde, par P.Du-Val Geographe Ordinaire du Roy. 1686. A Paris. Chez l’auteur, en l’Isle du Palais, sur le quay de l’Orloge, au coin de la rue de Harlay. Avec privilege du Roy pour vingt ans]
La collezione digitale Charts and maps del National Maritime Museum attinge al ricco patrimonio del museo che comprende più di 100.000 carte e mappe dal Medioevo ad oggi.

They document the results of exploration and discovery and show how techniques of navigation and surveying developed. Many were owned by naval officers and politicians and were used to plan and record the events which have become maritime history. The collections are not exclusively British and although they concentrate on charting the seas and coastlines, land maps are also included. Together they illustrate the work of the leading hydrographers and cartographers throughout the history of charting and mapmaking.
Charts represent the world’s water-covered regions as aids to navigation. They are generally drawn on Gerard Mercator’s projection (first introduced in 1569), which transforms the curved surface of the earth on to a flat plane.
The earliest portulan charts were prepared on vellum (sheep or goatskin). These concentrated on the Mediterranean. Later Italian, Spanish and Portuguese charts included new information resulting from the voyages of exploration of the late-15th and early-16th centuries.
Printed charts replaced portulan charts in the 17th century. The Dutch dominated the hydrography market and published many fine sea atlases. France and Britain next became major forces in chartmaking. Both established naval hydrographic offices, France in 1720 and Britain in 1795.
The British contribution to hydrography was highlighted by the voyages of discovery made by Captain James Cook between 1768 and 1780. Britain led the charting industry during the 19th century.

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Autore: Bibliostoria

Biblioteca di scienze della storia e della documentazione storica Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Festa del Perdono, 7

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